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良性乳腺条件

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Benign (non-cancerous) breast conditions are unusual growths or other changes in the breast tissue that are not cancer.

Having a benign breast condition can be scary at first because the symptoms often mimic those caused by breast cancer. You or your doctor might be able to feel a lump or see nipple discharge, or your mammogram might pick up something that requires further testing.

Any abnormal change in the breast can be a sign of cancer and needs to be checked out. However, many changes turn out to be benign. In fact, benign breast conditions are quite common — even more common than breast cancer.

Although benign breast conditions aren’t cancer, some can increase your risk of eventually developing breast cancer. Experts often group benign conditions into three categories, according to whether they raise breast cancer risk:

  1. no increase in risk
  2. 在风险略有增加
  3. moderate increase in risk

You and your doctor can develop a follow-up plan that suits your diagnosis. Conditions that carry “no increase” and a “slight increase” in breast cancer risk typically require no further action beyond the usual breast cancer screening recommendations for women at average risk.

对于携带患乳腺癌的风险“温和增长”的条件,你的医生可能会建议你用乳房X光检查和/或其他影像学检查更频繁的场次,如超声或MRI(磁共振成像)扫描。他或她也可能会建议策略降低风险。如果你有乳腺癌的其他危险因素,如家族史,这会影响你的行动计划。这些决策必须根据具体情况逐案基础上做出。你的医生可以帮助你了解乳腺癌的你的一生风险。

This section includes information about some of the more commonly diagnosed benign breast conditions. (We have not included every possible diagnosis; there are many, many breast cell changes that are considered benign. See your doctor for more information.)

标志和良性乳腺疾病的症状

有许多不同类型的乳腺良性条件,但在乳腺组织中都异常引起的变化。有时它们会影响腺体组织(小叶和管道产生乳汁的系统,并进行乳头)。或者,他们可能涉及乳房的支撑性组织,也被称为基质组织。

A benign breast condition can lead to a distinct growth or lump that sometimes can be felt through the skin. Or it can be something unusual picked up on a screening mammogram.

If you have symptoms, they’re often similar to those associated with breast cancer, such as:

  • 疼痛,肿胀,和/或在乳房触痛
  • a lump that can be felt through the skin or nipple
  • skin irritation
  • 对乳房的乳头和/或皮肤发红或脱屑
  • nipple pain or retraction (meaning part of the nipple looks like it is puckered or pulling inward)
  • 从不是牛奶乳房放电(颜色范围从清晰到血腥,以黄,绿,黑褐色,甚至黑色。Note:如果你有单独排出,即使没有其他症状,告诉你的医生。一般来说,黄色或绿色的分泌物良性,而放电是透明或茶色更令人担忧。任何排放应检查出来,虽然)。

所有这些症状需要进一步测试,以排除乳腺癌的一个可能的原因。

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乳腺良性状况的诊断

用于诊断乳腺良性条件下的测试和程序往往是相同用于诊断乳腺癌。诊断的目标是:

  • 确保增长或其他变化,检测确实是良性
  • determine whether the condition is associated with any increase in cancer risk

程序可能包括:

  • A breast physical exam and medical history:医生检查乳房,密切关注该地区或地方有一个肿块或其他异常变化。他或她也需要一个完整的病史,包括当前和以前的症状,一般的乳房健康,并为乳腺癌的危险因素。
  • Imaging tests:The most commonly used tests are mammography, an X-ray examination of the breast; and ultrasound, which uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the breast tissue. Ultrasound is a good tool for telling the difference between lumps that are fluid-filled (called cysts) and those that are solid (which can indicate cancer or another benign breast condition, such as fibroadenoma). A breast MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging scan, may also be done if other imaging tests don’t provide enough information.
  • 乳头溢液分析:如果你有乳头溢液,可以采取样本n and examined under a microscope for the presence of blood or other abnormal cells. In some cases, additional tests may be needed to figure out the cause.
  • Biopsy:Biopsy involves removing a tissue sample and examining it under a microscope. Typically you would have a core needle biopsy, which removes slivers of tissue, or an excisional biopsy, which removes abnormal tissue from the area.

您的测试计划将取决于你的症状和什么样的良性乳腺条件类型之嫌。你的医生可能无法告诉你多少,直到测试结果回来。等待是辛苦的,但请记住,良性的条件比乳腺癌更为常见。

In most cases, today’s imaging techniques are advanced enough to tell the difference between a benign breast condition and cancer, notes Alan Stolier, M.D., a surgical breast oncologist with St. Charles Surgical Hospital and the Center for Restorative Breast Surgery in New Orleans. “If anything about the imaging is suspicious, we will go a step further with biopsy,” he says. “If we don’t recommend anything else be done, we have a high level of confidence it is benign.”

在某些情况下,他补充说,你的医生可能会让你回来6个月内的另一超声或其他影像学检查。这并不意味着他或她关注的是,乳房变化可能是癌症。相反,它是一个额外的预防措施,以确保该地区保持不变,这往往减轻患者的思想。然而,并不需要大多数妇女应遵循以这种方式与影像学检查。无论你的情况,不要犹豫,问你的医生了解更多信息或寻求第二个意见.

了解更多乳腺癌测试.

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Expert Quote

“在某些方面,良性乳腺条件是很难对付的不是乳腺癌。女性可以理解倾向于认为,“我能感觉到我的乳房的东西,一定有问题!”但有没有什么有害那里。你不想做那是不是真的需要活检。所以,你必须找到一个方法来帮助患者拒绝他们的焦虑。”- 艾伦博士Stolier,外科乳腺肿瘤学家,圣查尔斯外科医院和中心修复乳腺外科,新奥尔良

乳腺良性条件不增加乳腺癌风险

Many benign breast conditions don’t increase your risk of developing breast cancer later on. Some of them cause symptoms, while others may be picked up on a routine screening mammogram or ultrasound. They include:

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Benign breast conditions linked to a slight increase in breast cancer risk

Some benign breast conditions are associated with a slight increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. All of these conditions involve an overgrowth of breast cells that closely resemble normal, healthy cells. The cells look fairly typical and are not abnormal (the technical term is “lesions without atypia”).

The increase in cancer risk is so slight that it generally doesn’t change recommendations about screening practices or follow-up. Your doctor may encourage you to pay closer attention to getting annual mammograms and adopting healthy behaviors that lower risk, such as exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy weight, and limiting alcohol. (See降低您的风险了解更多信息。)但是,你患乳腺癌的风险仍然被认为是类似于妇女平均风险的。

In addition, your individual situation will be taken into account. You and your doctor can discuss your benign diagnosis in relation to any other well-defined risk factors you may have, such as family history or personal medical history. You can then decide if you need a different follow-up plan. (For more information, visit后续护理乳腺良性条件。)

以下良性的条件都与癌症风险略有增加。你有一个可疑的面积出现了在成像研究的活检后大多数人会被诊断。你的医生往往会根据乳房组织的显微镜下出现的状况进行分类。

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Benign breast conditions linked to a moderate increase in breast cancer risk

Benign breast conditions known as “atypical hyperplasias” are linked to a moderate increase in the lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, if you are diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia, your risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in any given year remains low. The actual risk of developing breast cancer over a lifetime depends on other breast cancer risk factors as well as the age you were diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia.

“Hyperplasia” means that there is excessive growth of breast cells that are also “atypical,” meaning they have some, but not all, of the features of carcinoma in situ (an early form of breast cancer that stays inside the duct or lobule where it started). These cells aren’t cancer but they aren’t completely normal either. Sometimes they are also called neoplasias.

Thanks to the increased use of mammography screening, atypical hyperplasias are being diagnosed more often than ever before. An abnormal finding through screening would lead to biopsy and examination of the tissue.

If you’re diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia, keep in mind that these conditions are not breast cancer. They also don’t mean you will develop breast cancer one day. Instead, these conditions suggest a potential for moderate increased risk in both breasts, not just the breast where the cell changes were found. They give you good reason to pay closer attention to your breast health and perhaps work with a breast specialist. However, most women with atypical hyperplasias will never get breast cancer.

You and your doctor can discuss your diagnosis relative to any otherbreast cancer risk factors你可能有 - 如家族病史,个人病史,或生活方式 - 和你的follow-up plan.

There are two main types of atypical hyperplasia:

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Benign breast changes due to inflammation, infections, pregnancy, and more

有迹象表明,炎症,感染,妊娠,或者干脆等异常变化导致其它良性乳腺条件。他们可能会导致肿块,生长,发炎区域,异常放电,和/或疼痛的发展。这些条件是不与乳腺癌的风险增加。然而,他们的症状常常会导致你和你的医生要考虑乳腺癌作为一种可能性。你经常会需要额外的影像学检查,如超声和乳房X光检查,甚至活检,以确保病情确实是良性的。

许多良性乳房条件与inflam有关mation, pain, and infection. There can be areas of redness and swelling involving the nipple, areola, and/or skin of the breast. Such symptoms are usually not a sign of breast cancer. However, any breast changes that persist over time should be checked by a breast specialist. Infections usually get better quickly and completely resolve after a couple weeks’ treatment with antibiotics. If you have symptoms of inflammation and infection that won’t go away, you can ask your doctor to rule out a rare form of cancer known as inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Inflammatory breast cancer is an uncommon but aggressive form of breast cancer that usually starts with redness and swelling in the breast rather than a distinct lump. Learn more about炎性乳腺癌.

其它良性乳腺条件可能会导致需要进一步调查的异常症状。一般来说,这些症状都是不一样的是那些患有乳腺癌的发生。

If you’ve ever been pregnant or you’re close to someone who has, you know that pregnancy and breastfeeding lead to major changes in the breasts. Pregnancy-related hormones increase the volume and density of the breasts. The breasts not only get bigger but the tissue inside them becomes more glandular and less fatty — all part of the process of getting ready to produce milk after the baby is born. These tissue changes, along with the act of breastfeeding itself, make pregnancy and the postpartum period a prime time for developing benign breast changes.

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后续护理乳腺良性条件

通常情况下,女性挂不增加或癌症的风险略有增加乳腺良性条件并不需要额外的跟进之外,每年乳房X光检查和临床检查例行检查。如果你有手术切除的增长,当然你必须任命检查治疗。

你的医生可能6-12个月内推荐的后续乳房检查和造影检查(乳房X线照片,超声波,和/或MRI检查,磁共振成像)检查的区域。如果你有一个囊肿,纤维腺瘤,或其他没有需要拆除的增长,你的医生可能会建议它检查与乳房检查和超声的最初几年作为一项预防措施。或者你可以直接回到年度放映。

Closer follow-up might be needed if:

  • you have a benign condition linked to a moderate increase in breast cancer risk, such as atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ
  • you have a benign condition linked to a slight increase in breast cancer risk, but you also have some knownbreast cancer risk factors, such as family history

你和你的医生可以一起来了解您的风险程度,并制定了一项计划,最适合你的。您也不妨跟着一个乳腺专科在良性乳腺条件的专业知识。

Your plan may include the following:

More intensive screening

你和你的医生会制定适合您的情况筛查计划。在某些情况下,你可以简单地用每月乳房自我检查和乳房X光摄影每年(40岁以上)和临床乳房检查你的医生进行。然而,你的医生也可能建议:

  • starting mammograms before age 40
  • having additional screening tests such as ultrasound or MRI of the breast, which can aid with early detection
  • being screened more frequently (say, every 6 months instead of every 12 months), perhaps alternating the type of test you have each time — mammography and MRI, for example

学习更多关于筛选和测试.

为降低风险的生活方式的改变

某些生活方式的改变可以帮助你保持你患乳腺癌的风险尽可能低。例子包括:

  • maintaining a healthy weight
  • exercising regularly
  • limiting alcohol
  • 吃有营养的食物
  • 不吸烟(或如果你做烟戒烟)
  • avoiding or stopping hormone replacement therapy

详细了解不同的方式来lower your risk of breast cancer.

服药降低风险

如果你的乳腺良性状况和其他风险因素把你患乳腺癌的风险略有增加,医生可能会建议抗雌激素疗法。通过阻断雌激素的影响或降低体内雌激素水平,这些药物可降低患激素受体阳性乳腺癌的风险。例子包括:

  • tamoxifen (brand names: Nolvadex, Soltamox)
  • 雷洛昔芬(商品名:雷洛昔芬)
  • toremifene (brand name: Fareston)
  • exemestane (brand name: Aromasin)
  • 阿那曲唑(商品名:瑞宁得)
  • 来曲唑(商品名:弗隆)
  • 氟维司群(商品名:FASLODEX)

他莫昔芬通常建议绝经前或绝经后妇女;所述其他药物绝经后,通常使用。

These medications have side effects, so you and your doctor can discuss whether the benefits in terms of risk reduction are great enough to justify taking them.

学习更多关于激素治疗.

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点评人:

Marcia Boraas, M.D., FACS在Fox Chase癌症中心,宾夕法尼亚州费城,肿瘤外科的副教授

艾伦Stolier,医学博士,FACS, surgical breast oncologist, St. Charles Surgical Hospital and the Center for Restorative Breast Surgery, New Orleans, LA

罗宾M. CIOCCA,DO, surgical breast oncologist, Lankenau Medical Center, Wynnewood, PA

Donna-Marie Manasseh, M.D., director of the Breast Cancer Program at Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY

Brian S. Wojciechowski, M.D., medical oncologist, Crozer-Keystone Health System, Philadelphia area, PA; Breastcancer.org medical adviser

大丽花M. Sataloff,医学博士综合乳腺中心的主任vice chairman of the department of surgery at Pennsylvania Hospital; clinical professor of surgery at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA


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